Marine Services - Business Consultants
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Oil Rigs, Gas pipelines & Offshore Facilities protection
After 9/11, the international community adopted series of regulatory initiatives to counter security threats that exist in the maritime environment and enhance security of the maritime transport industry.
Some of these international regulatory countermeasures, as well as those that already existed prior to 9/11, apply to offshore oil and gas installations.
This part of the article examines how these regulatory countermeasures address the protection and security of offshore installations and highlights gaps in the international regulatory framework.
Prevent & Protect
Types of offshore security threats
Attacking offshore oil and gas installations is not a new phenomenon.
In fact, the first attack on an offshore oil installation took place more than 100 years ago on 2 August 1899 off the shores of Santa Barbara, California.
In the last 25 years there have been about 50 attacks and security incidents involving offshore installations. These were carried out by various perpetrators with different motivations, objectives, tactics and capabilities.
These include terrorists, insurgents, pirates, criminal syndicates, environmental activists, anti-oil activists and other types of protesters, hostile Nation-States, and sometimes other unknown groups and individuals.
Offshore security threats are activities that pose a risk to operations of offshore oil and gas installations.
Any unlawful interference with offshore oil and gas operations or an act of violence directed towards offshore installations is considered an "offshore security threat".
Offshore security threats may be classified in several ways based on different criteria. One such classification is based on geographical criteria, such as local or global, national or transnational.
The attacks may come from various sources: individuals or groups internal or external to a state or a combination of both.
Such threats are:
- Organized crime
- Civil protest
- Inter-state hostilities
- Internal sabotage
Framework for assessment of offshore security threats
The following set of factors shall be taken into consideration when assessing offshore security threats: